Going Private: Exploring the Implications and Advantages of Privatization for Public Companies

Why Public Companies Go Private: Exploring the Decision-Making Process


Public companies sometimes choose to go private due to various reasons, weighing the advantages and disadvantages associated with this decision. Going private entails freedom from costly and time-consuming regulatory requirements, such as the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX). This article delves into the factors that companies consider before going private and provides insights into the implications of such a transition.

The Benefits and Challenges of Being a Public Company

Advantages of Public Companies:

  • Liquidity: The buying and selling of public company shares offer investors a liquid asset.
  • Prestige: Being publicly traded implies operational and financial size and success, especially on major stock exchanges like the New York Stock Exchange.

Challenges of Public Companies:

  • Regulatory Compliance: Public companies are subject to numerous regulatory, administrative, financial reporting, and corporate governance bylaws, shifting management’s focus away from core operations.
  • Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002: SOX, enacted in response to corporate failures like Enron and Worldcom, imposes compliance and administrative rules on publicly traded companies. Section 404, in particular, requires the implementation and testing of internal controls over financial reporting at all levels of the organization.
  • Quarterly Earnings Expectations: Public companies must meet Wall Street’s quarterly earnings expectations, potentially diverting attention from long-term functions such as research and development, capital expenditures, and pension funding.
  • Pension Fund Issues: Some public companies have manipulated financial statements, compromising employees’ pension funds by projecting overly optimistic anticipated returns.

Understanding the Transition: Going Private

Definition of “Take-Private” Transaction:

  • In a “take-private” transaction, a private-equity group or consortium acquires the stock of a publicly traded corporation.
  • Due to the substantial size of most public companies, acquiring companies often require financing from investment banks or lenders to facilitate the purchase.
  • The acquiring private-equity group uses the target company’s operating cash flow to repay the debt incurred during the acquisition.

Benefits of Going Private:

  • Reduced Regulatory Burden: Private companies are relieved from the costly and time-consuming requirements of regulatory frameworks such as SOX.
  • Resource Allocation: Private companies can allocate more resources to research and development, capital expenditures, and pension funding, as they face fewer external reporting obligations.

The Role of Private Equity Groups:

  • Financing and Returns: Private equity groups secure financing from banks or lenders and aim to provide sufficient returns for their shareholders.
  • Leveraging: Leveraging the acquired company reduces the amount of equity needed for the acquisition, enhancing capital gains for investors.
  • Business Plan: After the acquisition, management outlines a business plan that demonstrates how the company will generate returns for its investors.

Factors Influencing the Decision to Go Private:

  • Relationships with Private Equity Firms: Investment banks, financial intermediaries, and senior management build relationships with private equity firms to explore partnership opportunities.
  • Premium Over Stock Price: Acquirers typically offer a premium of 20% to 40% over the current stock price, attracting CEOs and managers of public companies who are incentivized by stock appreciation.
  • Shareholder Pressure: Shareholders, particularly those with voting rights, often urge the board of directors and senior management to complete a deal that increases the value of their equity holdings.
  • Long-Term Outlook: Management must balance short-term considerations with the company’s future prospects, assessing factors such as the financial partner’s compatibility, leverage, and cash flow sustainability.
  • Acquirer Evaluation: Scrutinizing the acquirer’s track record is crucial, considering factors like leverage practices, industry familiarity, sound projections, level of involvement in company stewardship, and exit strategies.

Market Conditions and Going Private:

  • Credit Availability: The ease of borrowing funds for acquisitions depends on market conditions. In favorable credit markets, more private-equity firms can acquire public companies, while tightening credit markets make debt more expensive and lead to fewer take-private transactions.


The decision for a public company to go private involves weighing the advantages and challenges associated with regulatory compliance, earnings expectations, and other factors. Going private relieves companies from burdensome regulatory requirements like the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, allowing them to allocate resources more efficiently. Acquiring private-equity groups play a vital role in financing and implementing business plans, while management must carefully evaluate the potential acquirer’s track record. Ultimately, the decision to go private requires a thorough assessment of the company’s long-term outlook and market conditions.

Advantages and Drawbacks of Privatization: Understanding the Implications

Advantages of Privatization:

  1. Focus on Business Operations: Going private allows management to concentrate on running and growing the business without the burden of complying with regulatory requirements like the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX). This enables the senior leadership team to enhance the company’s competitive positioning in the market.
  2. Flexible Reporting Requirements: Private companies can tailor reporting obligations to meet the needs of private investors, allowing internal and external assurance, legal professionals, and consulting professionals to focus on relevant reporting requirements.
  3. Long-Term Focus: Privatization frees management from the pressure of meeting quarterly earnings expectations. This longer-term horizon allows management to prioritize activities that create sustainable shareholder wealth, such as implementing process improvement initiatives and investing in sales staff training.
  4. Utilization of Resources: Private companies have more time and financial resources at their disposal, which can be allocated to initiatives like process improvements, research and development, and capital expenditures.

Drawbacks of Privatization:

  1. Excessive Leverage Risks: Private equity firms that employ excessive leverage to fund acquisitions can expose the company to financial risks. Economic downturns, increased competition, or missed revenue milestones can severely impact the organization’s ability to service its debt.
  2. Capital Constraints: If a privatized company struggles to service its debt, its bonds may be downgraded to junk status. This makes it challenging to raise debt or equity capital for vital investments in capital expenditures, expansion, or research and development, hindering long-term success and competitive differentiation.
  3. Limited Liquidity: Shares of private companies do not trade on public exchanges, resulting in reduced liquidity for investors. The availability of buyers for equity stakes can vary, making it more difficult to sell investments, especially if exit dates are specified in the privacy covenants.


Going private offers several advantages for public companies, including reduced regulatory obligations, increased flexibility in reporting, and the ability to focus on long-term goals. However, the drawbacks of excessive leverage, capital constraints, and limited liquidity need to be carefully managed. By maintaining reasonable debt levels, preserving free cash flow, and utilizing resources effectively, privatized companies can benefit from the freedom to prioritize strategic initiatives and create sustainable value for shareholders in the long run.

Additional Resources:

Websites and Online Resources:

  1. U.S. Congress. “H.R.3763 – Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002” – Link
  2. U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. “Study of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, Section 404, Internal Control Over Financial Reporting Requirements” – Link


  1. “The Sarbanes-Oxley Act: A Brief Introduction” by Guy L. Fardone
  2. “Sarbanes-Oxley For Dummies” by Jill Gilbert Welytok and Mark R. Williams

Academic Journals and Research Papers:

  1. Hope, Ole-Kristian, and Wayne B. Thomas. “Managerial Empire Building and Firm Disclosure.” Journal of Accounting Research 49, no. 5 (2011): 1091-1123.
  2. Carcello, Joseph V., and Terry L. Neal. “Audit Committee Composition and Auditor Reporting.” The Accounting Review 81, no. 3 (2006): 823-849.

Reports and Studies:

  1. Ernst & Young. “Sarbanes-Oxley Section 404: A Guide for Management by Internal Controls Practitioners.” (2018) – Link
  2. PricewaterhouseCoopers. “Going private: Unlocking value in a changing business environment.” (2017) – Link

Professional Organizations and Associations:

  1. Financial Executives International (FEI) – Link
  2. National Association of Corporate Directors (NACD) – Link

These resources offer authoritative information and valuable insights for readers seeking further information on the topic of going private, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, and related considerations.

Gary Gensler: The Current Chair of the SEC and His Role in Financial Regulation

Who Is Gary Gensler?

Gary Gensler is the current chair of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Nominated by President Joe Biden on Feb. 3, 2021, and confirmed by the Senate on April 14, 2021, Gensler was sworn into office on April 17, 2021. In this role, Gensler leads the SEC to ensure fair, orderly, and efficient markets, facilitate capital formation, protect investors, and build public trust in the market.

Early Life and Education

  • Gary Gensler was born on October 18, 1957, in Baltimore, MD.
  • He holds an undergraduate degree in Economics and an MBA from The Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania.
  • Gensler began his career in 1979 at Goldman Sachs, where he became a partner in mergers & acquisitions and co-head of finance.

Government Service

  • During the Clinton administration, Gensler served as assistant secretary of the Treasury and undersecretary of the Treasury for Domestic Finance.
  • He was a senior advisor to U.S. Senator Paul Sarbanes in writing the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
  • Under President Obama, Gensler served as chair of the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) from 2009 to 2014, known for his tough enforcement of rules regulating the swaps market.

Chair of the SEC

  • As SEC chair, Gensler has addressed various issues including cryptocurrency oversight, insider trading, share buybacks, money market funds, and special purpose acquisition companies (SPACs).
  • He aims to expand the whistleblower program established under the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act.
  • Gensler launched a video series called Office Hours with Gary Gensler to engage everyday investors.

Notable Accomplishments

  • Gensler is a recipient of the Alexander Hamilton Award, the U.S. Treasury’s highest honor, and the 2014 Frankel Fiduciary Prize.

Teaching and Work Experience

  • Gary Gensler was a professor of the Practice of Global Economics and Management at the MIT Sloan School of Management.
  • He worked at Goldman Sachs as a partner in the Mergers & Acquisition department and co-head of Finance.

The Bottom Line

  • Gary Gensler is considered a top financial regulator and is expected to advance President Biden’s agenda for aggressive oversight of the financial industry.
  • With his background in cryptocurrencies and blockchain, Gensler supports increased oversight of the cryptocurrency industry.

Resources for Further Information on Gary Gensler and the SEC

Websites and Online Resources:

  1. U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC): The official website of the SEC provides a wealth of information about the commission, its role, regulations, and enforcement actions.
  2. MIT Sloan School of Management: The website of the MIT Sloan School of Management offers information on Gary Gensler’s tenure as a professor and his work in global economics and management.


  1. “The Great Reset: How New Ways of Living and Working Drive Post-Crash Prosperity” by Richard Florida: This book explores the aftermath of the financial crisis and the role of regulatory bodies, including the SEC, in shaping the future of the economy.
  2. “The Alchemists: Three Central Bankers and a World on Fire” by Neil Irwin: This book provides insights into the role of financial regulators, including the SEC, during times of economic turmoil.

Academic Journals and Research Papers:

  1. “The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and Its Effects on Corporate Governance and Financial Reporting” by Jagdish Pathak: This academic paper examines the impact of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, co-authored by Gary Gensler, on corporate governance and financial reporting.
  2. “Regulatory Capture and the SEC” by J.W. Verret: This research paper explores the concept of regulatory capture and its implications for the SEC’s effectiveness as a regulatory agency.

Reports and Studies:

  1. “SEC Priorities for 2022: Protecting Investors, Facilitating Capital Formation, and Maintaining Fair and Orderly Markets” by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission: This report outlines the SEC’s priorities and areas of focus for the year.
  2. “The State of Investor Protection 2021” by the Council of Institutional Investors: This report assesses the current state of investor protection and highlights areas for improvement.

Professional Organizations and Associations:

  1. Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA): FINRA is a self-regulatory organization that oversees broker-dealers and securities firms. Their website provides valuable information on regulations and investor protection.
  2. American Bar Association (ABA) – Section of Business Law: The ABA’s Business Law Section offers resources and insights on securities regulation, corporate governance, and related legal topics.

Note: Additional resources and information can be found through academic databases, financial news outlets, and government publications.

Comprehensive Security Risk Assessments: Safeguarding Data, Mitigating Threats, and Ensuring Compliance

The Importance of Security Risk Assessment for Cybersecurity and Compliance


In today’s digital landscape, organizations face numerous cybersecurity risks that can jeopardize their sensitive information and disrupt business operations. To effectively manage these risks, organizations must conduct comprehensive security risk assessments. This article explores the significance of security risk assessments in the context of cybersecurity and regulatory compliance, such as the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). We will also delve into the key elements of a risk assessment, providing insights into how organizations can identify and mitigate security threats.

What is a Security Risk Assessment?

A security risk assessment is a systematic evaluation of the potential information security risks associated with an organization’s applications and technologies. By conducting a risk assessment, organizations can identify vulnerabilities and threats, analyze their potential impact, and implement security controls to mitigate or eliminate these risks.

The Role of Security Risk Assessments in Compliance

Security risk assessments play a crucial role in ensuring regulatory compliance, particularly in industries governed by stringent data protection laws. Let’s take a closer look at two prominent regulatory frameworks that emphasize the importance of security risk assessments:

  1. Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX): Enacted in 2002, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act is a U.S. federal law aimed at protecting investors by improving the accuracy and reliability of corporate financial disclosures. SOX requires periodic security risk assessments to identify and mitigate risks that could compromise the integrity and confidentiality of financial data.
  2. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA): HIPAA sets standards for the privacy and security of protected health information (PHI) in the healthcare industry. Compliance with HIPAA mandates periodic security risk assessments to identify vulnerabilities and safeguard PHI from unauthorized access, use, and disclosure.

Key Elements of a Risk Assessment

To conduct an effective security risk assessment, organizations can refer to the National Institute of Standards and Technology’s (NIST) Special Publication 800-53, Guide for Conducting Risk Assessments. This publication provides a comprehensive framework for the risk assessment process, encompassing the following key elements:

  1. Identification:
    • Identify critical technology assets within the organization.
    • Determine the sensitive data created, stored, or transmitted by these assets.
    • Establish a clear understanding of the organization’s risk landscape.
  2. Risk Profile Creation:
    • Analyze the potential risks associated with individual assets.
    • Develop independent security requirements tailored to each asset.
    • Reduce security standards costs throughout the organization.
  3. Critical Assets Map:
    • Map the workflow and communication process among critical assets.
    • Maintain business operations during cyberattacks by focusing on critical assets.
    • Formulate safeguards to prevent data breaches based on information flow.
  4. Assets Prioritization:
    • Prioritize assets based on their criticality and potential impact on the organization.
    • Facilitate efficient recovery of business processes after unexpected events, such as cyberattacks or natural disasters.
  5. Mitigation Plan:
    • Utilize assessment findings to develop mitigation measures.
    • Implement strategies such as IT infrastructure segmentation, backup policies, disaster recovery, and business continuity plans.
    • Manage the impact of adverse events and protect stakeholders.
  6. Vulnerability and Cybersecurity Risk Prevention:
    • Evaluate the effectiveness of remediation efforts on the organization’s security posture.
    • Implement access controls, advanced authentication methodologies, firewalls, vulnerability scanning, and penetration testing to protect high-risk infrastructure.
    • Continuously test and measure the performance of security measures to ensure their effectiveness.


Security risk assessments are an indispensable component of enterprise risk management, serving as a proactive measure to identify, analyze, and mitigate cybersecurity risks. By conducting regular assessments, organizations can strengthen their security posture.

Conducting a Comprehensive Security Risk Assessment


Performing a thorough security risk assessment is crucial for organizations to identify and mitigate potential threats to their assets and operations. In this section, we will outline the steps involved in conducting a comprehensive security risk assessment, taking into account the different aspects of a business. We will also explain the distinction between risk assessments and vulnerability assessments, and how they contribute to overall security.

Differentiating Risk Assessments and Vulnerability Assessments

While risk assessments and vulnerability assessments may seem similar, it’s important to understand their distinctions:

  1. Risk assessments: These assessments focus on identifying potential threats or hazards to an organization’s technology, processes, and procedures. They help uncover risks associated with new initiatives or business endeavors. For example, identifying knowledge gaps in recognizing phishing emails or insufficient network segmentation. The goal is to close these gaps and reduce potential threats.
  2. Vulnerability assessments: These assessments aim to identify existing flaws or weaknesses in assets or systems that could be exploited by malicious actors. They focus on finding vulnerabilities that need immediate attention. For instance, discovering unpatched flaws in ERP software.

Steps for Conducting a Security Risk Assessment

To perform a comprehensive security risk assessment, follow these steps:

  1. Asset Identification and Prioritization:
    • Compile a comprehensive list of all assets requiring protection.
    • Gather information about software, hardware, data, storage protection, physical security environment, IT security policies, users, support personnel, technical security controls, mission/purpose, criticality, functional requirements, interfaces, and IT security architecture.
    • Establish criteria for determining the value of each asset based on factors like monetary worth, legal standing, and relevance to the company.
    • Classify each asset as critical, principal, or minor based on the established criteria.
  2. Threat Identification:
    • Identify potential events or factors that can cause damage to organizational assets or processes.
    • Consider both internal and external threats, as well as malicious and accidental threats.
    • Conduct a thorough screening for all potential threats, including those unique to your organization and those common to the industry.
  3. Vulnerability Identification:
    • Identify flaws or weaknesses that can be exploited by risks.
    • Utilize analysis, audit reports, vulnerability databases, vendor data, security test and evaluation methods, penetration testing, and automated vulnerability scanning to identify vulnerabilities.
    • Consider technical, physical, and human vulnerabilities.
  4. Controls Analysis:
    • Analyze the controls in place to reduce the likelihood of threats exploiting vulnerabilities.
    • Assess both technical and non-technical controls, such as encryption, intrusion detection techniques, security policies, administrative measures, and physical and environmental processes.
    • Differentiate between preventative and detective controls.
  5. Determination of Incident Likelihood:
    • Evaluate the likelihood of vulnerabilities being exploited.
    • Consider the type of vulnerability, capacity and purpose of the threat source, and the effectiveness of internal controls.
    • Use a risk rating scale, such as high, medium, or low, to estimate the probability of adverse events.

Monitoring and Ongoing Risk Management

In addition to the steps outlined above, organizations should implement continuous monitoring and risk management practices to ensure ongoing security. This includes measures such as:

  • Passive monitoring of the network using antivirus scanners and other tools.
  • Regular updates and patching of systems and software to address vulnerabilities.
  • Training programs to educate employees about potential risks and how to mitigate them.
  • Periodic reviews and updates of security policies and controls to align with evolving threats.


Conducting a comprehensive security risk assessment is essential for organizations to proactively identify and address potential threats. By following the steps outlined above and differentiating between risk assessments and vulnerability assessments, organizations can enhance their overall security posture and comply with regulations

Conducting a Comprehensive Security Risk Assessment: Industries and Compliance


Performing a comprehensive security risk assessment is crucial for organizations across various industries to protect sensitive data and comply with regulations. In this section, we will explore the impact assessment, information security risks prioritization, recommendation of measures, and the importance of assessment reports. We will also highlight specific industries that require security risk assessments and the corresponding compliance frameworks.

Impact Assessment

An essential aspect of a security risk assessment is evaluating the potential impact of threats on an organization’s operations. This assessment involves determining the severity of the impact and considering potential ripple effects or collateral damage. The impact can be categorized as high, medium, or low, based on the potential consequences.

Information Security Risks Prioritization

To effectively address security risks, organizations must prioritize them based on their likelihood of occurrence and impact. By assigning severity levels to each threat, security teams can focus their efforts on those with the highest severity. This prioritization enables better resource allocation and ensures that mitigation measures are implemented where they are most needed.

Recommendation of Measures

Based on the prioritization of risks, organizations can recommend specific measures to mitigate or prevent these risks. The selection of measures should consider factors such as cost-benefit analysis, compliance with applicable regulations, effectiveness, reliability, and operational impact. These measures may include the implementation of internal controls or other security mechanisms.

Assessment Report

Creating a comprehensive risk assessment report is crucial for effective risk management. The report should provide a clear overview of each identified threat, including its corresponding vulnerability, assets at risk, impact assessment, likelihood of occurrence, and recommended measures for mitigation. This report serves as a valuable resource for decision-making and communication with stakeholders regarding security risks and their management.

Industries Requiring Security Risk Assessments

Several industries are mandated to conduct regular security risk assessments due to the nature of the data they handle and regulatory requirements. Here are some examples:

  1. Healthcare:
    • The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) requires covered entities and business associates to perform security risk assessments.
    • Risk assessments help identify threats and prevent data breaches in the healthcare sector.
    • Assessments determine the level of risk posed to individuals and guide appropriate communication in the event of a breach.
  2. Payment Cards:
    • The Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) mandates risk assessments for businesses that process or handle payment cards.
    • Annual risk assessments are required, with additional assessments triggered by substantial environmental changes.
    • Assessments identify critical assets, threats, vulnerabilities, and their impact on the cardholder data environment.
  3. Public Companies:
    • The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires public companies to conduct top-down risk assessments (TDRAs).
    • TDRAs evaluate the effectiveness of internal controls within the organization.
    • Larger companies may also require external auditor reviews of controls.

Benefits of a Comprehensive Risk Assessment Solution

Implementing a comprehensive risk assessment solution can greatly facilitate the process and ensure ongoing compliance. Features such as a single source of truth, revision-controlled policies and procedures, workflow management, risk registry, insightful reporting, and dashboards offer significant benefits:

  • Always audit-ready: Maintain a centralized document repository with revision control, ensuring easy access to policies and procedures.
  • Efficient workflow management: Track assessment progress, automate reminders, and maintain an audit trail.
  • Enhanced visibility: Gain insights into gaps and high-risk areas through insightful reporting and dashboards.
  • Streamlined compliance: Ensure adherence to regulatory requirements and easily demonstrate compliance during audits.

Additional Resources for Comprehensive Security Risk Assessments

Websites and Online Resources:

  1. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) – Risk Management Framework:
  2. Security and Exchange Commission (SEC) – Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) Compliance:


  1. “Managing Risk and Information Security: Protect to Enable” by Malcolm W. Harkins:
  2. “IT Risk: Turning Business Threats into Competitive Advantage” by George Westerman and Richard Hunter:

Academic Journals and Research Papers:

  1. “A Framework for Information Security Risk Assessment” by A. Dehghantanha et al. (2016):
  2. “Security Risk Assessment for Industrial Control Systems” by A. Fakoorian et al. (2017):

Reports and Studies:

  1. Verizon Data Breach Investigations Report (DBIR):
    • Annual report providing insights into global data breaches, threat landscapes, and risk assessment trends.
    • Verizon DBIR
  2. Ponemon Institute Research Reports:

Professional Organizations and Associations:

  1. International Association of Privacy Professionals (IAPP):
  2. Information Systems Audit and Control Association (ISACA):

Strengthening Corporate Integrity: The Case for Separating CEO and Chair Positions

3 Reasons to Separate CEO and Chair Positions

All public corporations in the United States are required to have a board of directors that oversees corporate activities and protects the interests of shareholders. However, there is an ongoing debate about whether it is beneficial to separate the roles of the chief executive officer (CEO) and the chair of the board. This article presents three reasons why separating these positions can strengthen the overall integrity of a company.

1. Executive Compensation

  • The board of directors decides on executive pay, including the CEO’s compensation.
  • When the CEO also serves as the chair of the board, a conflict of interest arises, as the CEO is essentially voting on their own compensation.
  • This conflict can compromise the fairness and transparency of the executive pay decision-making process.
  • Separating the CEO and chair positions ensures that executive compensation is determined by an independent board, free from potential self-interest and conflicts.

2. Corporate Governance

  • The board’s main role is to monitor the company’s operations and ensure they align with the company’s mandate and shareholder wishes.
  • The CEO is responsible for managing the company’s operations.
  • When the CEO holds both the CEO and chair positions, the board may struggle to effectively monitor the CEO’s actions and decisions.
  • Separating the positions allows for an independent chair to oversee the CEO’s performance, identify areas where the company may be deviating from its mandate, and implement corrective measures when necessary.
  • A strong and independent board is crucial for maintaining good corporate governance and ensuring the company’s long-term success.

3. Audit Committee Independence

  • The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 introduced stricter regulations for corporate oversight, including the requirement for the audit committee to consist of external board members.
  • The audit committee plays a vital role in monitoring corporate oversight and ensuring financial transparency.
  • Having the CEO serve as the chair of the board can limit the effectiveness of the audit committee.
  • With the CEO in a dual role, the independence of the committee may be compromised, making it challenging for the committee to act impartially.
  • Separating the CEO and chair positions allows for a fully independent audit committee, enhancing its ability to perform its oversight responsibilities effectively.
  • This independence is particularly important in facilitating whistleblower reports, as employees and other individuals need to feel confident reporting fraud and abuse directly to the audit committee without fear of reprisal.

In conclusion, separating the CEO and chair positions in public corporations offers several advantages, including fairer executive compensation decisions, stronger corporate governance, and more effective audit committee oversight. These measures can contribute to the overall integrity and success of the company, ensuring that it operates in the best interests of its shareholders and stakeholders.

Further Resources

Here is a comprehensive list of resources that offer authoritative information and valuable insights on the topic of separating CEO and chair positions:

Websites and Online Resources:

  1. Harvard Law School Forum on Corporate Governance: This forum provides a platform for academics, practitioners, and policymakers to share their perspectives on corporate governance issues. It covers various topics related to board structures and leadership roles. Visit website
  2. National Association of Corporate Directors (NACD): NACD is a nonprofit membership organization focused on promoting boardroom excellence. Their website offers resources, articles, and publications related to effective board governance practices, including the separation of CEO and chair roles. Visit website


  1. “Inside the Boardroom: How Boards Really Work and the Coming Revolution in Corporate Governance” by Richard Leblanc: This book explores the dynamics and functioning of corporate boards, including the role of the CEO and chair positions. It provides insights into the benefits of separating these roles for effective governance. Buy on Amazon
  2. “The Activist Director: Lessons from the Boardroom and the Future of the Corporation” by Ira M. Millstein: This book delves into the evolving role of directors in modern corporations, discussing the separation of CEO and chair positions as a means to enhance board effectiveness and accountability. Buy on Amazon

Academic Journals and Research Papers:

  1. “Separation of CEO and Chair Roles: Implications for Board Independence and CEO Accountability” by Ronald W. Masulis and Shawn Mobbs (The Journal of Finance): This research paper examines the impact of separating CEO and chair roles on board independence and CEO accountability. It provides empirical evidence and insights into the benefits of separation. Read paper
  2. “CEO Duality: How the Combination of CEO and Chair Roles Affects Firm Performance” by Julian Franks and Colin Mayer (Journal of Economics & Management Strategy): This study investigates the relationship between CEO duality and firm performance, highlighting the potential drawbacks of having a combined CEO and chair role. Read paper

Reports and Studies:

  1. “Separating the Roles of CEO and Chair: Considerations for Corporate Boards” (Deloitte): This report by Deloitte explores the benefits and challenges of separating CEO and chair positions. It provides insights and recommendations for corporate boards considering this structural change. Read report
  2. “CEO Succession Practices: 2019 Edition” (The Conference Board): This report examines CEO succession practices among global companies. It discusses the prevalence of separating CEO and chair roles in different regions and industries, along with the associated implications. Read report

Professional Organizations and Associations:

  1. Institute of Directors (IOD): IOD is an organization dedicated to promoting excellence in corporate governance. They offer resources, publications, and events related to board leadership, including discussions on separating CEO and chair roles. Visit website
  2. Corporate Governance Association of Turkey (TKYD): TKYD is an association focused on improving corporate governance practices in Turkey. Their website provides valuable insights into board structures and the separation of CEO and chair positions. Visit website

These resources will provide readers with authoritative information and diverse perspectives on the topic, allowing for a deeper understanding of the importance and implications of separating CEO and chair positions.

Understanding Internal vs. External Audits: A Comprehensive Guide for Effective Business Oversight and Compliance

Internal Audit: Enhancing Corporate Governance and Risk Management

Internal audits play a crucial role in evaluating a company’s internal controls, corporate governance, and accounting processes. These audits are essential for ensuring compliance with laws and regulations, maintaining accurate financial reporting, and collecting reliable data. By identifying problems and correcting lapses before they are discovered in external audits, internal audits provide valuable tools for achieving operational efficiency. This article explores the concept of internal audits, different types of internal audits, and their significance in today’s corporate landscape.

What Is an Internal Audit?

Internal audits are comprehensive evaluations of a company’s internal controls, governance practices, and accounting procedures. These audits are conducted by internal auditors who are employed by the company to work on behalf of management. Here are key points to understand about internal audits:

  • Internal audits provide risk management and assess the effectiveness of various aspects of a company’s operations.
  • They ensure compliance with laws and regulations, safeguard against potential fraud, waste, or abuse, and support reliable financial reporting.
  • Similar to external audits, internal audits follow a structured process involving planning, auditing, reporting, and monitoring steps.
  • Internal audits have the potential to enhance operational efficiency, motivate employees to adhere to company policies, and enable management to focus on specific areas for improvement.

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the Importance of Internal Audits

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX) holds managers legally responsible for the accuracy of their company’s financial statements. This legislation also requires companies to document and review their internal controls as part of external audits. Here’s how SOX relates to internal audits:

  • SOX places increased accountability on managers, emphasizing the need for robust internal controls and accurate financial reporting.
  • Internal audits ensure compliance with SOX requirements and provide management with recommendations to improve processes and systems.
  • With the threat of legal repercussions, internal audits help companies demonstrate adherence to SOX regulations and mitigate the risk of non-compliance.

Types of Internal Audits

Internal audits can take various forms, each addressing specific areas and objectives within a company. Here are different types of internal audits:

  1. Compliance Audit:
    • Ensures adherence to local laws, government regulations, external policies, and compliance needs.
    • Evaluates the company’s compliance status and provides an overall opinion on its compliance requirement.
  2. Internal Financial Audit:
    • Supports external financial auditing by reviewing and preparing the company’s financial records.
    • Aims to enhance financial reporting accuracy and identify areas for improvement before external audits.
  3. Environmental Audit:
    • Focuses on a company’s environmental impact and sustainability practices.
    • Evaluates sourcing of raw materials, greenhouse gas emissions, eco-friendly distribution, and energy consumption.
  4. Technology/IT Audit:
    • Reviews and assesses controls, hardware, software, security, documentation, and backup/recovery of IT systems.
    • Aims to ensure accurate and efficient IT operations and may be triggered by external lawsuits or efficiency goals.
  5. Performance Audit:
    • Measures the outcome of specific objectives or metrics set by the company.
    • Focuses on quantifiable results, such as analyzing the impact of diversifying suppliers on spending patterns.
  6. Operational Audit:
    • Assesses how tasks are performed and the efficient use of resources within the company.
    • Reviews whether staff and processes align with the company’s mission, values, and objectives.
  7. Construction Audit:
    • Conducted by development, real estate, or construction companies to ensure appropriate project development and billing.
    • Ensures compliance with contract terms and accurate project completion reporting.
  8. Special Investigations:
    • Occurs in response to unique circumstances, such as mergers, key employee hiring, or staff complaints.
    • Requires selecting auditors with specific expertise and independence to investigate the special circumstance thoroughly.


Internal audits play a vital role in promoting corporate governance, risk management, and compliance with regulatory requirements. With the enactment of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, the importance of internal audits has significantly increased, as managers are now legally responsible for financial statement accuracy. By conducting different types of internal audits, companies can identify areas for improvement, enhance operational efficiency, and ensure reliable financial reporting. Effective internal audits not only protect companies from legal and financial risks but also contribute to the overall success and sustainability of their operations.

Internal Audit vs. External Audit

Internal and external audits have distinct differences in terms of purpose, team selection, requirements, reporting, and engagement nature. Here is a clearer breakdown of these differences:

  1. Purpose:
    • Internal Audit: Primarily focuses on improving company operations, processes, and policies. Reports are used by internal management to drive improvements.
    • External Audit: Mainly conducted to meet external reporting requirements and satisfy stakeholders’ needs outside the company.
  2. Team Selection:
    • Internal Audit: The company can select its own internal audit lead and team members, allowing for specific expertise alignment with company goals.
    • External Audit: The company or board selects the audit firm but has limited control over the specific audit team members assigned.
  3. Requirements:
    • Internal Audit: No specific titles or licenses are required for internal audit team members.
    • External Audit: Depending on the audit type, certain titles or licenses, such as a Certified Public Accountant (CPA) for external financial audits, may be required.
  4. Reporting:
    • Internal Audit: Reports primarily used internally to drive improvements and enhance operations.
    • External Audit: Reports used by external parties to meet reporting requirements and provide assurance on financial statements.
  5. Engagement Nature:
    • Internal Audit: Often less formal with blurred structure, allowing for casual guidance and consultation with the company’s employees.
    • External Audit: More formal with defined boundaries and disallowed services to ensure independence and objectivity.

Internal Audit Process

The internal audit process consists of several key steps, including planning, auditing, reporting, and monitoring:

  1. Planning:
    • Develop the audit plan, including requirements, objectives, timeline, schedule, and responsibilities.
    • Review prior audits to understand management expectations and establish communication channels.
  2. Auditing:
    • Gather an understanding of internal control processes through indirect assessment techniques, such as reviewing existing documentation.
    • Perform auditing procedures, including transaction matching, physical inventory counts, and account reconciliation.
  3. Reporting:
    • Prepare an interim report with significant findings and a draft final audit report for review by management.
    • Conduct a pre-close internal audit meeting to address feedback, rebuttals, and additional information.
  4. Monitoring:
    • Follow up after a designated time to ensure the implementation of recommended changes.
    • Conduct limited reviews or re-audits to assess whether identified issues have been resolved.

Internal Audit Reports: The 5 C’s

Internal audit reports typically adhere to the 5 C’s reporting requirement, which answers the following questions:

  1. Criteria:
    • What issue was identified, and why was the internal audit necessary?
    • Is the audit in preparation for a future external audit?
    • Who requested the audit and why?
  2. Condition:
    • How does the issue relate to company targets or expectations?
    • Does it involve policy violations, benchmark deviations, or unsatisfied conditions?
    • Is the issue believed to exist or considered resolved by the company?
  3. Cause:
    • Why did the issue arise?
    • Who or what processes contributed to the issue?
    • How could the issue have been prevented?
  4. Consequence:
    • What are the outcomes or potential risks associated with the issue?
    • Are there any financial implications related to the issue?
  5. Corrective Action:
    • What steps can the company take to resolve the problem?
    • How will management implement the necessary changes?
    • What monitoring or review processes will be in place to ensure successful resolution?

Resources for Further Reading

Websites and Online Resources:

  • Investopedia: “Internal Audit vs. External Audit” – Provides a detailed comparison between internal and external audits, highlighting their differences, objectives, and significance. Read more
  • The Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA) – Offers comprehensive resources, research papers, and guidance on internal audit practices, standards, and professional development. Visit the website


  • “Internal Auditing: Assurance and Advisory Services” by Kurt F. Reding, Paul J. Sobel, and Urton L. Anderson – A comprehensive textbook that covers the fundamentals of internal auditing, including its role, methodologies, and best practices. Learn more
  • “External Auditing: Assurance and Advisory Services” by Timothy J. Louwers, Robert J. Ramsay, David H. Sinason, and Jerry R. Strawser – Explores the principles and practices of external auditing, providing insights into the audit process, ethical considerations, and the role of external auditors. Learn more

Academic Journals and Research Papers:

  • “The Impact of Internal Audit Function Quality and Contribution on Audit Delay” by Ummi Junaidda Binti Hashim and Noor Hidayah Binti Azahari – Investigates the relationship between the quality of internal audit functions and audit delays, offering insights into the effectiveness of internal audit in improving financial reporting timeliness. Read the paper
  • “The Effectiveness of Internal Audit in Government: A Study on the State Audit Institution in Indonesia” by Mustika Sufiati Purwanegara and Kausar Dwi Yulianti – Examines the role and effectiveness of internal audit in the government sector, highlighting its impact on governance, accountability, and transparency. Access the paper

Reports and Studies:

  • The Institute of Internal Auditors Research Foundation: “The Role of Internal Auditing in Enterprise-wide Risk Management” – Explores the connection between internal auditing and enterprise risk management, emphasizing the strategic value of internal audit functions in identifying and mitigating risks. Access the report
  • Deloitte: “Building High-Impact Internal Audit Functions” – Provides insights into how organizations can enhance the effectiveness of their internal audit functions by aligning them with strategic goals, embracing technology, and adopting a risk-based approach. Read the report

Professional Organizations and Associations:

  • The Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA) – A globally recognized professional association for internal auditors, offering resources, certifications, training programs, and networking opportunities. Explore the IIA
  • The Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA) – A leading global organization for professional accountants, providing valuable insights, publications, and guidance on auditing practices and standards. Visit the ACCA website