Disclosure: Enhancing Transparency in the Financial World

What Is Disclosure? Disclosure is the timely release of comprehensive information about a company that may influence investor decisions. It encompasses both positive and negative news, data, and operational details that impact a company’s business. The concept of disclosure is based on the principle that all parties should have equal access to the same set of facts to ensure fairness.

Laws and Regulations on Disclosure The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is responsible for developing and enforcing disclosure requirements for all U.S.-incorporated companies. Publicly-listed companies on major U.S. stock exchanges must comply with the SEC’s regulations. Key points regarding disclosure include:

  • Federal regulations mandate the disclosure of all relevant financial information by publicly-listed companies.
  • Companies are required to reveal their analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) in addition to financial data.
  • Timely release of substantive changes to financial outlooks is essential.

Historical Context: The Role of Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 The Securities Act of 1933 and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, enacted in response to the 1929 stock market crash and the subsequent Great Depression, laid the foundation for federal government-mandated disclosure in the U.S. These laws were introduced to address the lack of transparency in corporate operations, which was believed to contribute to the financial crisis. Subsequent legislation, including the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, further expanded disclosure requirements for public companies and increased government oversight.

Significance of Sarbanes-Oxley Act Under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, public companies are mandated to disclose information related to their financial condition, operating results, and management compensation. This legislation ensures that companies comply with clearly outlined disclosure requirements, preventing selective release of information that could disadvantage individual shareholders. The act also extends disclosure obligations to brokerage firms, investment managers, and analysts, who must disclose information that may influence investors to mitigate conflict-of-interest issues.

SEC-Required Disclosure Documents The SEC requires publicly-traded companies to prepare and issue two annual reports: one for the SEC and one for the company’s shareholders. These reports, known as 10-Ks, serve as essential disclosure documents and must be updated by the company as significant events unfold. Additionally, companies seeking to go public must disclose information through a two-part registration process, including a prospectus and a second document containing material information such as a SWOT analysis.

Real-World Example of Disclosure A notable example of disclosure occurred on March 4, 2020, when the SEC advised all public companies to make appropriate disclosures regarding the likely impact of the global spread of the coronavirus on their future operations and financial results. Prior to this advisory, companies such as Apple had already issued warnings about the pandemic’s potential impact on their revenue due to disrupted supply chains and reduced retail sales. Airlines, travel-related companies, and consumer goods manufacturers with dependencies on China also provided disclosures concerning the effects on their businesses.

By adhering to disclosure requirements, companies strive to ensure transparency and provide crucial information to investors, fostering a level playing field for all stakeholders in the financial world.

Websites and Online Resources:

  1. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) – The official website of the SEC provides comprehensive information on disclosure requirements, regulations, and enforcement. It offers access to various reports, filings, and guidance related to disclosure. Visit the SEC website
  2. Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) – The FASB website offers resources and standards related to financial reporting and disclosure. It provides access to accounting standards, interpretations, and educational materials for a deeper understanding of financial disclosure requirements. Visit the FASB website


  1. “The Handbook of Financial Communication and Investor Relations” by Alexander L. F. Heyes – This book explores the importance of effective communication and disclosure in investor relations. It provides practical guidance and insights into crafting clear and transparent messages to investors. Find the book on Amazon
  2. “Sarbanes-Oxley For Dummies” by Jill Gilbert Welytok – This book offers a comprehensive overview of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and its implications for financial disclosure and corporate governance. It provides practical advice and explanations to help readers navigate the requirements of the act. Find the book on Amazon

Academic Journals and Research Papers:

  1. “The Impact of Sarbanes-Oxley Act on Corporate Governance” by Mariano Selvaggi and Lei Shen – This research paper examines the effects of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act on corporate governance practices and financial disclosure. It offers valuable insights into the changes brought about by the act and their implications. Access the research paper
  2. “Financial Reporting and Disclosure: The Regulatory Framework and Practices” by Shamsul Nahar Abdullah and Hasnah Kamardin – This academic article explores the regulatory framework and practices of financial reporting and disclosure. It discusses the importance of transparency and the challenges faced by companies in meeting disclosure requirements. Access the article

Reports and Studies:

  1. “Transparency in Corporate Reporting: Assessing Disclosure Practices” – This report by the World Business Council for Sustainable Development evaluates corporate disclosure practices across various industries. It provides insights into transparency trends and best practices in corporate reporting. Access the report
  2. “Global Disclosure Report 2020: Disclosing the Facts on Sustainability” – This report by the Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP) examines the disclosure practices of companies regarding their environmental impacts and sustainability efforts. It highlights the importance of transparent reporting and its role in driving sustainable practices. Access the report

Professional Organizations and Associations:

  1. The Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA) – The IIA is an international professional association focused on internal auditing. It provides resources, training, and guidance on financial reporting, internal controls, and disclosure practices. Visit the IIA website
  2. The National Investor Relations Institute (NIRI) – NIRI is a professional association dedicated to advancing the practice of investor relations. It offers educational resources, networking opportunities, and insights into effective communication and disclosure strategies. Visit the NIRI website

These resources will provide authoritative information and valuable insights for readers seeking to deepen their understanding of disclosure, transparency, and the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.