Unmasking Voodoo Accounting: Deceptive Practices and the Impact of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act

Voodoo Accounting: Unraveling the Deceptive Practices


Voodoo accounting refers to an unethical and creative method of accounting employed by companies to artificially inflate their financial figures, such as revenue and profit, by concealing expenses or using accounting gimmicks. These practices came to light following high-profile accounting scandals involving companies like Enron, Tyco, and WorldCom. In response to these scandals, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 was enacted to reform regulations and impose stricter penalties on fraudulent acts.

Understanding Voodoo Accounting

Voodoo accounting involves various maneuvers used by companies to hide losses and inflate profits, deceiving investors and analysts into believing that the company is more profitable than it actually is. While larger companies subjected to greater scrutiny find it challenging to execute these tricks, voodoo accounting is more prevalent among smaller, less closely monitored public companies. The motivation behind these practices often stems from the pressure to meet quarterly earnings expectations on Wall Street.

Examples of Voodoo Accounting Practices

  1. Big bath charges: This technique entails reporting one-time losses improperly, where companies take a significant charge to mask lower-than-expected earnings.
  2. Cookie jar reserves: Companies use this gimmick for income smoothing, manipulating financial figures by setting aside reserves during periods of higher profits to offset future losses.
  3. Recognizing revenue before collection: This practice involves recording revenue before it is actually received, artificially inflating current financial figures.
  4. Merger magic: Some companies write off most or all of an acquisition price as in-process research and development (R&D), manipulating financial statements to boost the bottom line.

Implications and Special Considerations

Companies often resort to voodoo accounting to maintain investor confidence and meet expectations. However, the discovery of these deceptive practices can have severe consequences. The repercussions may include compromised executive compensation and job security, tarnished company reputation, and diminished market value.

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 was enacted in response to high-profile accounting scandals, primarily the Enron scandal, where the company employed off-the-book accounting practices to deceive shareholders and regulators. The act aimed to enhance financial reporting integrity and transparency by implementing reforms and imposing stricter penalties for financial fraud. It plays a crucial role in preventing and combating voodoo accounting practices.

Example Illustrating Voodoo Accounting

To better understand voodoo accounting, let’s consider a hypothetical scenario. A company employs voodoo accounting to prematurely recognize $5 billion of revenue while concealing $1 billion in unexpected expenses during a quarter. By doing so, the company reports a net income that is $6 million higher than the actual figure for the quarter. However, once the discovery of these fictitious profits is made, the positive share price reaction is quickly reversed, raising concerns about management credibility.


Voodoo accounting represents an unethical and deceptive approach to financial reporting that artificially inflates a company’s figures. It involves various accounting gimmicks to manipulate revenue and conceal expenses. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 serves as a regulatory framework to prevent and penalize such fraudulent practices, ensuring companies uphold truthfulness and transparency in their financial reporting.

Comprehensive Resources on Voodoo Accounting and Sarbanes-Oxley Act

Websites and Online Resources:

  1. Investopedia – Voodoo Accounting Definition and Examples Link: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/v/voodoo-accounting.asp
    • Provides a clear definition and detailed examples of voodoo accounting, helping readers understand the deceptive practices used by companies.
  2. U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) – Sarbanes-Oxley Act Information Link: https://www.sec.gov/fast-answers/answersarbohtm.html
    • Offers official information from the SEC about the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, its key provisions, and its role in combating accounting fraud and voodoo accounting.


  1. “The Smartest Guys in the Room: The Amazing Rise and Scandalous Fall of Enron” by Bethany McLean and Peter Elkind Link: https://www.amazon.com/Smartest-Guys-Room-Amazing-Scandalous/dp/1591846609
    • This book delves into the Enron scandal, revealing how voodoo accounting led to the downfall of the energy giant and provides valuable insights into fraudulent accounting practices.
  2. “Sarbanes-Oxley For Dummies” by Jill Gilbert Welytok Link: https://www.amazon.com/Sarbanes-Oxley-Dummies-Jill-Gilbert-Welytok/dp/0471754889
    • A beginner-friendly guide that explains the Sarbanes-Oxley Act’s intricacies, its impact on financial reporting, and its significance in curbing voodoo accounting.

Academic Journals and Research Papers:

  1. “The Impact of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act on Corporate Structure” by Robert Charles Clark Link: https://hls.harvard.edu/faculty/directory/10825/Clark
    • A scholarly article discussing the effects of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act on corporate governance and structure, shedding light on its role in mitigating voodoo accounting practices.
  2. “Detecting Earnings Management: A Simple Test of Voodoo Accounting” by Simon Gervais and Terrance Odean Link: https://faculty.haas.berkeley.edu/odean/papers/voodoo.pdf
    • This research paper outlines a test for detecting earnings management, including voodoo accounting techniques, providing valuable insights for investors and analysts.

Reports and Studies:

  1. “Financial Shenanigans: How to Detect Accounting Gimmicks and Fraud in Financial Reports” by Howard Schilit Link: https://www.amazon.com/Financial-Shenanigans-Detect-Accounting-Gimmicks/dp/126011726X
    • An informative report highlighting various accounting gimmicks, including voodoo accounting, and offering tools to detect fraudulent practices.
  2. “Sarbanes-Oxley Section 404 Compliance Costs and Earnings Quality” by Joseph V. Carcello and Terry L. Neal Link: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1475-679X.2003.00092.x
    • A research study examining the relationship between the costs of Sarbanes-Oxley Act compliance and the quality of earnings, providing insights into its impact on financial reporting accuracy.

Professional Organizations and Associations:

  1. American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) Link: https://www.aicpa.org
    • The AICPA offers resources and guidance on accounting ethics, fraud prevention, and professional standards, providing valuable insights into detecting and preventing voodoo accounting practices.
  2. Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Link: https://www.fasb.org
    • FASB sets accounting standards in the United States and provides educational resources and updates on financial reporting practices, including measures to address voodoo accounting.

Unveiling Financial Deception: 8 Ways Companies Manipulate Financial Statements and How to Spot Them

The financial statements of companies can sometimes be manipulated to present a misleading picture of their performance. While regulations such as the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 have helped curb fraudulent practices, investors should still be aware of red flags that indicate the use of manipulating methods. Here are eight common ways companies cook the books:

  1. Accelerating Revenues:
    • Lump-sum payments for long-term contracts are recorded as immediate sales instead of being amortized over the contract’s duration.
    • “Channel stuffing” involves shipping excess products to distributors at the end of a quarter and recording them as sales, even though the products can be returned.
  2. Delaying Expenses:
    • Companies postpone recording expenses to future periods, artificially inflating current profits.
    • AOL’s delayed expenses for CD distribution in the 1990s is an example of this practice.
  3. Accelerating Pre-Merger Expenses:
    • Before a merger, the acquiring company may pay or prepay expenses to boost the post-merger earnings per share (EPS) growth rate.
    • This tactic allows the company to already record expenses in the previous period.
  4. Non-Recurring Expenses:
    • Non-recurring or extraordinary charges are one-time expenses used to analyze ongoing operating results.
    • Some companies misuse this category by artificially creating non-recurring expenses to manipulate earnings.
  5. Other Income or Expense:
    • Companies use the “other income or expense” category to manipulate financial statements.
    • Excess reserves from prior charges may be added back to income, while expenses can be netted against newfound income.
  6. Pension Plans:
    • Companies with defined benefit plans can adjust plan expenses to improve earnings.
    • Gains resulting from investments exceeding assumptions can be recorded as revenue.
  7. Off-Balance-Sheet Items:
    • Separate subsidiaries are created to hold liabilities or expenses that the parent company wishes to conceal.
    • These subsidiaries, if not wholly owned, can be kept off the parent company’s financial statements, hiding them from investors.
  8. Synthetic Leases:
    • Synthetic leases are used to keep certain costs off the balance sheet.
    • Companies establish special purpose entities to purchase assets and lease them back, avoiding disclosure of the asset or related liabilities.

The Role of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act: The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 was enacted to reform financial practices in publicly held corporations. While it has significantly curbed fraudulent practices, companies may still attempt to manipulate financial statements. Investors should remain vigilant and look for warning signs of earnings manipulation when analyzing a company’s financial statements.

Key Takeaways:

  • Corporate misdeeds can still occur despite reform legislation.
  • Identifying hidden items in financial statements can be a warning sign of potential earnings manipulation.
  • Conducting further investigation before making investment decisions is prudent when red flags are present.

Websites and Online Resources:

  1. U.S. Congress. “H.R. 3763—Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.” – This official document provides the full text of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, offering detailed information on the comprehensive reforms introduced to combat financial fraud and improve corporate governance. Read more
  2. U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. “Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Release No. 42781.” – This SEC release provides insights into regulations and guidelines related to financial reporting and disclosure requirements, offering valuable information for investors and companies alike. Read more


  1. “Financial Shenanigans: How to Detect Accounting Gimmicks & Fraud in Financial Reports” by Howard M. Schilit – This book provides a comprehensive guide to identifying and analyzing deceptive accounting practices, equipping readers with the knowledge to uncover financial manipulations. Amazon link
  2. “Creative Accounting, Fraud, and International Accounting Scandals” by Michael Jones – This book explores notable accounting scandals and fraud cases, offering in-depth analysis of the tactics employed and the consequences faced by companies involved. Amazon link

Academic Journals and Research Papers:

  1. “Earnings Manipulation and Corporate Governance: A Comprehensive Review” by Naohiko Matsuo – This academic paper discusses the relationship between earnings manipulation and corporate governance, providing insights into the factors that contribute to financial statement fraud. Read more
  2. “The Detection and Deterrence of Financial Statement Fraud: Implications for Future Research” by James A. DiGabriele and D. Larry Crumbley – This research paper explores methods for detecting and deterring financial statement fraud, highlighting the importance of internal controls and the role of auditors in uncovering manipulations. Read more

Reports and Studies:

  1. “The Financial Cost of Fraud 2020” by the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners (ACFE) – This report provides insights into the financial impact of fraud, including financial statement fraud, on organizations worldwide. It offers valuable statistics and case studies for understanding the prevalence and consequences of manipulation. Read more
  2. “Global Forensic Data Analytics Survey 2020” by Ernst & Young (EY) – This survey report explores the use of forensic data analytics in detecting and preventing financial statement fraud. It highlights key challenges and trends in this field, providing useful information for professionals and researchers. Read more

Professional Organizations and Associations:

  1. Association of Certified Fraud Examiners (ACFE) – ACFE is a professional organization dedicated to fighting fraud and providing resources for fraud examiners. Their website offers